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  • Scoliosis Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side.

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  • Kyphosis Kyphosis

    Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback.

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  • Spinal Tumors Spinal Tumors

    A spine tumor is the abnormal growth of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord.

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  • Disc Herniation Disc Herniation

    Disc herniation is a condition where the central nucleus pushes through the outer edge of the disc, causing a bulge that compresses the spinal nerves.

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  • Spinal Stenosis Spinal Stenosis

    Spinal stenosis is a condition caused by the vertebral column constricting and exerting pressure on the spinal cord or neural foramen (a bony tunnel through which a nerve exits the spinal cord).

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  • Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolisthesis is the displacement of the vertebral disc from the spinal column.

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  • Spine Deformities Spine Deformities

    The spine has two gentle curves, when viewed from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front. When these curves are exaggerated, pronounced problems can occur such as back pain, breathing difficulties and fatigue.

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  • Spinal Fractures Spinal Fractures

    Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed.

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  • Spinal Disorders Spinal Disorders

    The spine is made up of a column of small bones called vertebrae that surround and protect the spinal cord and nerves that branch out from the spinal cord.

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  • Spondylolysis Spondylolysis

    Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the vertebra that may progress into spondylolisthesis, a condition where the vertebra gets displaced from the spinal column.

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  • Spondylodiscitis Spondylodiscitis

    Spondylodiscitis is an infection of the intervertebral discs (between the vertebrae) along with the vertebrae (one of many small bones forming the spine).

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  • Spondyloarthropathies Spondyloarthropathies

    Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the spine and joints. Spondyloarthropathies can occur at any age, however, they occur more often in young males.

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  • Spine Arthritis Spondyloarthropathies

    Spine arthritis is a condition characterized by the inflammation, degeneration, or wearing out of cartilage in the joints of the spine.

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  • Facet Joint Arthritis Facet Joint Arthritis

    Facet joints, also called zygapophyseal joints, are synovial joints located at the back of your spine, connecting the vertebrae together.

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  • Sciatica Sciatica

    The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in your body. It begins in the lower back and extends through the buttocks down the back of each leg to the thighs and feet.

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  • Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative Disc Disease

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to the gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resilience and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture or poor body mechanics.

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  • Spine Trauma Spine Trauma

    Spine trauma is defined as an injury or damage to any region of the spine.

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  • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    Sacroiliac joint dysfunction or sacroiliac joint pain is one of the common causes of low back pain.

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  • Benign Spinal Tumors Spinal Tumors

    The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerves that extends from the brain along the length of the spinal column.

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  • Arm Pain of Spinal Origin Arm Pain of Spinal Origin

    Arm pain of spinal origin can be described as discomfort or pain felt anywhere in the arm including the wrist, elbow, or shoulder as a result of a pinched nerve (nerve compression) or irritated nerve in the spinal cord.

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  • Skeletal Dysplasia Skeletal Dysplasia

    Skeletal dysplasia, also called osteochondrodysplasia, is the term used for growth or developmental disorders of the bone and cartilage.

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  • Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition that commonly affects the spine.

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  • Spinal Instability Spinal Instability

    Spinal instability refers to the condition of failure of the spinal column to maintain its normal structure.

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  • Vertebral Compression Fractures Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures.

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  • Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    A traumatic spinal cord injury is an injury from sudden physical trauma that results in a fracture, dislocation, or compression of one or more spinal vertebrae and the bruising or tearing of any part of the spinal cord or cauda equina, the bundle of nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal canal.

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  • Spine Injuries in Athletes Spine Injuries in Athletes

    Spine injuries in athletes are defined as damage sustained by the spine as a result of physical trauma or overuse in people who are actively involved in sports.

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  • Adjacent Segment Disc Disease Adjacent Segment Disc Disease

    Spinal fusion surgery involves the fusion of two or more vertebral bones and is a standard of care for spinal deformities and conditions such as radiculopathy, myelopathy, and spondylolisthesis.

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  • Spinal Infection Spinal Infection

    A spinal infection is described as an infection of the spine. It can occur in various locations of the spine i.e., intervertebral disc space, vertebral column, spinal canal, and nearby soft tissues.

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  • Adult Degenerative Scoliosis Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

    Adult degenerative scoliosis is characterized by side to side or lateral bending of the spine in adults. Degenerative scoliosis can involve either the mid-back and/or lower back region of the spine.

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  • Adult Kyphosis-Types & Causes Adult Kyphosis-Types & Causes

    Kyphosis may gradually develop in certain paralytic disorders such as poliomyelitis, spinal muscle atrophy, and cerebral palsy.

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  • Radiculopathy Radiculopathy

    Radiculopathy is a condition where a nerve root in the spine is compressed, producing pain or weakness across the whole length of the nerve. It is sometimes referred to as a pinched nerve or sciatica. It occurs most commonly, but is not limited, to the lower back and neck.

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  • Osteoporosis of the Spine Osteoporosis of the Spine

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density resulting in brittle, fragile bones that are more susceptible to fractures.

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  • Degenerative Spinal Conditions Degenerative Spinal Conditions

    A degenerative condition is a continuous deterioration of a tissue or an organ in your body over time.

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  • Disc Changes Disc changes

    The cartilaginous disc is made up of an outer fibrous layer called the annulus fibrosus, which surrounds an inner gelatinous core called the nucleus pulposus.

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  • Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Sacroiliac joints are present in the lower back where the sacrum part of the vertebrae joins the iliac bones.

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  • Spina Bifida Spina Bifida

    Spina bifida is a congenital condition (birth defect) in which there is abnormal development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the spinal cord.

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  • Poor Balance Poor Balance

    Poor balance can be defined as a sense of unsteadiness on your feet due to dizzy spells or lightheadedness, fainting, blackouts, or loss of consciousness.

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  • Kyphosis in Children Kyphosis in Children

    Kyphosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a “hunchback”.

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  • Metastatic Tumors Metastatic Tumours

    A tumor (lump or mass) in your spine is an abnormal growth of tissue within or around your spinal column or spinal cord.

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  • Pathological Fractures of the Spine Pathological Fractures of the Spine

    Pathological fractures are broken bones in an area already weakened by another disease, not by an injury. Some underlying diseases can weaken the spinal bones making them brittle and eventually causing a fracture or break in the bone.

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  • Peripheral Nerve Compression Peripheral Nerve Compression

    The human body has 2 nervous systems, the central nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system that includes a network of nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Idiopathic Scoliosis Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, either to the left or to the right.

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  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - AAOS
  • AO Foundation
  • North American Spine Society
  • Lumbar Spine Research Society
  • Orthopaedic Research Society